“Angelica - Archangelica angelica”,“It will drive away cares and cause a merry heart.”, “In Russian, the seeds were made into a tea called”angelic water“. It was used for stomach ailments and as an antispasmodic. An infusion of the roots and rootstocks was more often used. It taken to treat hysteria, insomnia, epilepsy, all respiratory ailments, rheumatism and lower back pain, to eliminate runny noses and hangovers and to expel intestinal worms. A syrup made of the roots boiled in honey or wine was said to draw out toxins.”,”“

“Arnica - Arnica Montana”,”“,”A decoction of the flowers or rootstock was used to treat stomach problems resulting from poor digestion, including ulcers, spasms and cramps. It was also effectively used for podagra, epilepsy, colds, influenza and bladder problems. Arnica was also given to control uterine hemorrhaging during childbirth.“,”Unknown to most of the Slavic world, Arnica was mostly used in Ukraine, Belarus and the Karpatskie Mountains.”

“Barberry - Berberis vulgaris”,”“,”A 16th century Russian manuscript describes Barberry’s ability to cure diseases that cause infertility in women. The Princess Xenia of Pskov supposedly used this extract to help her conceive . A decoction of the root is also used as a remedy for liver and gallbladder ailments including gallstones and jaundice as well as colitas and urinary tract infections.“,””

“Barley - Hordeum vulgare”,”“,”Barley water was used to treat bladder and urinary tract disease, kidney stones, hemorrhoids, reduce swelling and tumors and treat jaundice. A Barley malt bath was used to treat just about any skin ailment imaginable including pimples, psoriasis and baldness.“,””

“Basil, Sweet - Ocimum basilicum”,”“,”It’s smell alone was thought to stop a runny nose. It was taken internally to bring dreams to those having trouble sleeping and as a diuretic.“,””

“Beet - Beta vulgaris”,“Beet leaves were wrapped around eggs and boiled to give them the red color used to denote beauty, prosperity and as a symbol of the Sun-God.”,“Honey and vinegar were added to a tea made of grated beets and used as a gargling agent for sore throats and colds. Beet leaves were applied to the head to draw out pain. Warm beet juice was dropped into the ear to stop buzzing and was boiled with sage as a cold and sore-throat remedy.”,”“

“Belladonna -Atropa belladonna”,“Found chiefly in the Carpathian region of Poland, his plant was always associated with Witches and evil. It is hallucinogenic and listed as an ingredient in most old flying ointment recipes, but highly toxic and very deadly.”,”“,””

“Bellflower - Campanula trachelium”,“In Poland, children suffering from consumption were bathed in the herb. If their skin darkened during the bath, it was taken as a sign that they would live. If their skin did not darken, it meant they would die.”,“The flowers were boiled in a covered pot then left to steep. The resultant tea was used as a wash for ear problems. The roots of this plant were steeped in strong liquor for several hours. This was then taken in small quantities for stomach pains.”,”’

“Betony - Betonica officinalis”,”“,”An infusion or decoction of its aerial parts was used for various lung and bronchial conditions including asthma and tuberculosis and to improve appetite. It is sometimes used as a nose-drop for arthritis.“,””

“Birch, white - Betula alba”,”“,”An infusion of fresh birch leaves may be used to treat edema, various bladder and kidney ailments and poor circulation. It is also said to prevent the formation of kidney stones. Birch sap is used to strengthen the immune system and as a general tonic. It is also used for nearly all skin ailments including dandruff and to speed hair growth. Birch tar is wonderful for skin diseases and to help wounds heal. An infusion of birch buds is used to remove skin spots.“,”Folklore: The birch is considered a feminine tree and is often associated with the rusalki and wily. The spirits of dead ancestors often take residence within the birch. The great world tree, according to many Slavic traditions, is a white birch.”

“Bryony, white - Bryonia alba”,“It was believed that anyone who dug up this herb would destroy their own happiness. For this reason, many folks fenced in any bryony plants they found in their yard. For Witches, this plant was said to grow anywhere, even in pots without dirt. Witches supposedly kept bryony hidden on their person.”,“The boiled root was used to heal any wound on a horse’s hoof.”,”“

“Burnet Saxifrage - Pimpinella saxifrage”,“This plant was called “the herb which breaks” because the touch of this plant was said to break up metal by its touch alone. To gather it, mown grass and crops were thrown into water and the saxifrage would float to the top. This herb was considered most powerful when gathered at Kupalo.”,“Steeped in strong alcohol, the roots and leaves were an effective treatment for dysentary and cholera (perhaps the two sisters in the following story?):”,“Folklore: (Poland) There were once three scythe wielding goddesses who dealt death and did so quite generously. One of these sisters hurt her leg and could not keep up with the others. No matter how much she begged for them to wait, they were too obsessed with their blood lust to take any pity upon her and they left her in their dust. Angered by the abandonment of her sisters, the lame death crone limped through the villages calling to the people, “Eat and drink saxifrage and you will be safe from death!” The people listened and the saxifrage stayed the scythes of her two sisters. The two sisters were enraged and fell upon their lame sister in a fury. The lame sister used her scythe to block them, and one sister fell upon it dying. In the tumult, the second sister fell upon the other’s scythe, leaving only one death, Marzana, for whom there is no remedy.”

“Carraway - Carum carvi”,“A pan of carraway seed in boiling water was placed beneath the crib of any child who was thought to be plagued by demons.”,“Chewed carraway seeds were smeared upon the face and hands upon going to sleep to protect one from mosquitos.”

“Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria”,”“,”A decoction of the flowers and shredded roots was used to treat nervous disorders such as hysteria and neurosis, hypertension and difficulties urinating. A decoction of the flowers and leaves is used for colds and other nasal and respiratory ailments. It was also used for ulcers, and other stomach problems and to treat inflamation of the kidneys or liver.“,”Folklore: (Russia) Kudryash was the strongest and bravest knight in the village, but one day he awoke with an awful terror of his own death. He was so afraid, he could no longer fight. When a band of thieves began to threaten the village and the people looked toward him for help, Kudryash became filled with shame. He wandered down to the river intent on drowning himself when who should arise, but a beautiful water maiden who gave him a garland of meadowsweet flowers. She told him to wear it in battle and he would not be harmed. He later wore the garland fearlessly into battle against the thieves and easily defeated them. Kudryash was proclaimed hero of the village and his courage was celebrated throughout the land.”

“Mugwort - Artemisia vulgaris”,“Mugwort picked from 9 different fields was a powerful amulet against infertility in women. Girls would stare at the Kupalo bonfire through a wreath of mugwort to strengthen the eyes. Effective protection against evil, mugwort was often carried or tucked into the eaves to protect a home from unclean spirits.”,”“,””

“Purple Looststrife”,“This plant was considered most powerful when gathered at Kupalo. One could control demons and troublesome spirits with the root if the following words were chanted over it before a sacred image:”,”“,””

“Willow, White -Salix alba”,“The willow is a symbol of fertility. Every Egorij day, the cattle and women are whipped with pussy willow branches to ensure their ability to bear offspring. Afterward, the branches are thrown into the fields to ensure a good harvest. A pussy-willow bud was eaten to guarantee health and prosperity for the coming year.”,“Willow bark was used for fever, cough, headache, rheumatism, diarrhea, pain-relief…after all…it is aspirin. A poultice of the bark was placed on puss-filled wounds or taken internally as a tea.”,”“