====== Mythology =======
=== Lamashtu === A she demon, Mother of Lammusa. “The Seven Curses”
Hairy body, the head of a lioness with donkey’s teeth and ears, long fingers and fingernails and the feet of a bird with sharp talons. She is often shown standing or kneeling on a donkey, nursing a pig and a dog, and holding snakes.
Sneak into the houses of unlucky pregnant women and touch her stomach seven times to kill the unborn child. Lamashtu would also steal newborns from their wet nurses and allow them to suckle the toxic milk from her own breasts She at times slaughters mothers as well in a fit of murder.
Enemy of the demon Pazuzu. Although Pazuzu was evil, expectant mothers often wore amulets bearing his image to protect themselves against Lamashtu.
=== Pazuzu === Pazuzu is often depicted with the body of a man but with the head of a lion or dog, talons instead of feet, two pairs of wings, the tail of a scorpion and a serpentine penis. He is also depicted with the right hand upward, and the left hand downward; the position of the hands means life and death, or creation and destruction.
Demon of the Wind and bearer of storms. Known for bringing droughts and famine during dry seasons, and locusts during rainy seasons.
== The Yet == The House of Darkness, the underworld.
Where all dead Sunesh go. Although there are some so corrupt they are denied entrance. These homeless spirits become Ekimmu or other demons.
== Azhi Dahaka == Three-headed, six-eyed, dragon-like monster. He is said to have a thousand senses, and to bleed snakes, scorpions, and other venomous creatures. He also is said to bring or control storms and disease.
Native religion is sumerian ask DM for details
===== Old Gods ===== === Apsu === the underworld ocean, masculine. The begetter of the skies and the earth. The father of Lahmus, Lahamu, Anshar and Kishar. He could not quell the noise of them or their children. He colluded with his vizier Mummu to silence the gods and allow Tiamat to rest, after Tiamat rejected the idea. Ea found out about his plans, cast a sleeping spell on him and killed him.
=== Tiamat === Chaos, bearer of the skies and the earth, mother of Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, and Kishar. The clamor of the younger gods disturbed her, but she continued to indulge them. When Apsu and Mummu suggested that they kill the younger gods, she grew furious, calmed down and rejected the plan. Her restless subservient gods goaded her into action after Apsu is slain. They prepared to wage war against the other gods. As Mother Hubur, the underworld river, who fashions all things, she bore giant snakes with venom for blood, and cloaked dragons with a godlike radiance yet with a terrible visage, for the war. She rallied a horned serpent, a mushussu-dragon, a lahmu-hero, a ugallu-demon, a rabid dog, a scorpion-man, umu-demons, a fish-man, a bull-man, and eleven others underneath her champion, Qingu. She gave Qingu the Tablet of Destinies to facilitate his command and attack. Marduk came with his host to attack her. Quingu’s strategy initially confuses him, and Tiamat tried to enspell him, hurling jibes at him. She was rebuffed and incited into single combat with Marduk. She continued to cast her spell and Marduk nets her, and throws a wind at her. She tried to swallow it and was undone - distended, shot, sliced in two and cut in the heart. Her crushed skull heralded her death, and half of her skin was used to roof up the sky. Her eyes became the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
=== Lahmu and Lahamu === ‘the hairy one’ or ‘muddy’ they have three pairs of curls, and are naked except for a triple sash. They were the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. Kappa was sent to fetch them by Anshar, to help send off Marduk on his fight with Tiamat and be rallied to his side. They complied and helped find a princely shrine for Marduk
=== Anshar === whole sky’ He is the father of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu. He is often paired with Kishar, and his qualities were assimilated with Ashur. When Ea learned of Tiamat’s planned war, Anshar tried to stir him into attacking her first, but was rebuffed. He turned to Anu and sent him on a peace mission to Tiamat, but Anu returned unsuccessful. An assembly was convened and Marduk came forth at Ea’s urging, promising to deliver Tiamat’s defeated body to Anshar’s feet. He required of the assembly a promise that he would be given the leadership of the pantheon after he is victorious. He had Kappa gather Lahmu, Lahamu, and the other gods together to send off Marduk on his fight and rally them to his side. When they arrive they help find a princely shrine for Marduk.
=== Kishar === ‘whole earth’ , She is the mother of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu.
=== Anu === Sumerian for “heaven”, a sky god, father and king of the gods. He is the son of Anshar and Kishar. He lives in the third heaven. The Eanna in Uruk was dedicated both to him and consort. His first consort was Antu. They produced the Anunnaki - the underworld gods, and the utukki - the seven evil demons. His second consort was Innina (Ishtar). He is a god of monarchs and is not friendly to the common people. He is a “King of the Igigi”. He is assigned the sky as his domain in ‘Atrahasis’. His ’kishru’s (shooting stars) have awesome strength. He has the ability that anything he puts into words, becomes reality. He is Niudimmud’s (Ea’s) father. He calls Adapa to account for breaking the wing of the South Wind, and offers him the food and drink of eternal life after Dumuzi and Gizzida speak on Adapa’s behalf. He agrees to send the Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh on Ishtar’s behalf, if she has made sure that the people of Uruk are properly provisioned for seven years. He decrees that either Gilgamesh or Enkidu must die for the slaying of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. He sends Kakka to Kurnugi to tell Ereshkigal to send a messenger to receive a gift from him. When Anzu stole the Tablet of Destinies from Ellil, he called for one of the gods to slay Anzu and thereby greatly increase his reputation. He gave Marduk the four winds to play with. He made a whirlwind and a flood wave and stirred up Tiamat on purpose. When Tiamat’s retaliation for Apsu’s death was discovered, Anshar sent him on a peace mission to her, but he returned unsuccessfully. He helps form a princely shrine for Marduk prior to his battle with Tiamat, and gives him the Anu-power of decreeing fates, such that his word is law. He and Earth father the Sebitti. He gives them fearsome fates and powers and puts them at Erra’s command, to aid in killing noisy, over populous people and animals. Symbol: sacred shine surmounted by the divine horned cap. Sacred number: 60 Astrological region: heavenly equator Sacred animal: the heavenly Bull
=== Antu(m) === Sumerian for “the earth”, she is a colorless being who was the first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki - the underworld gods, and the utukki - the seven evil demons. She was replaced by Isthar (Inanna) who is sometimes her daughter. Aruru (Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursasga, Belet-ili, Mami) -She is the mother goddess and was responsible for the creation of man with the help of Enlil or Enki. She is also called the womb goddess, and midwife of the gods. On Ea’s advice, she acted on his direction and mixed clay with the blood of the god Geshtu-e, in order to shape and birth seven men and seven women. These people would bear the workload of the Igigi. She also added to the creation of Gilgamesh, and, at Anu’s command, made Enkidu in Anu’s image by pinching off a piece of clay, throwing it into the wilderness, and birthing him there. Ea called her to offer her beloved Ninurta as the one who should hunt Anzu. She does so.
=== Mammetum === the maker or mother of fate
=== Nammu === one of “the pure goddesses”, Ea’s mother, associated with fresh water.
===== New Gods ===== Enlil God of Air and War (ruler of the pantheon)
Enki God of the the rivers and oceans
Inanna Goddess of war and love
Ki Goddess of Nature
Nin-Hursag Goddess of the earth
Utu Sun God
===== ===== A-shar see “Ashur” A-sir see “Ashur”
Aa In Babylonian mythology, Aa is the Great-Mother. The Mother of all things; Goddess of dawn; She Who inspired the invention of letters.
Adad In Sumerian mythology, Adad is a storm god, son of Anu. He holds a lightning bolt in his right hand and an axe in his left. He is partially responsible for the flood. He relates to the Canaanite god Hadad.
Aia In Sumerian mythology, Aia is a consort of Utu.
An In Sumerian mythology, An was the personification of heaven. An relates to the Babylonian god Anu.
Anshar In Sumerian mythology Anshar is the father of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu. He is often paired with Kishara, and his qualities were assimilated with Ashur.
Antu In Sumerian mythology, Antu is a colorless female being who was the first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki and the utukki. She was replaced by Isthar who is sometimes her daughter.
Anu In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology, Anu is the god of the sky. He is the son of Anshar and Kishar.
Anunnaki In Sumerian mythology the Anunnaki are the underworld gods.
Anzu In Sumerian mythology, Anzu is a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons and wings. It guards Enlil’s bath chamber.
Apsu In Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Apsu is the sweet-water ocean. It is the union of Apsu with Tiamat which brings forth the first gods.
Aruru In Sumerian mythology, Aruru (also known as Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursaga, Belet-ili or Mami) was the almighty gentle mother goddess of the earth and birth. She Who first created humanity from clay.
Arusar see “Ashur”
Ashnan In Sumerian mythology, Ashnan was the goddess of grain. She was created by Enlil to provide food and clothes for the gods.
Ashur In Sumerian mythology, Ashur (A-sir, Arusar, A-shar, Assur) is the god of Assyria and war. He is a King of the Igigi. He was depicted shooting an arrow with his upper body enclosed by a winged disk.
Assur see “Ashur”
Bel In Sumerian mythology, Bel is the cleverest of the clever and sage of the gods, he is the child of Ea and Dumkina.
Belit-tseri In Sumerian mythology, Belit-tseri is the tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before Ereshkigal.
Dagan In Babylonian and Assyrian mythology, Dagan was an earth god.
Dumkina In Sumerian mythology, Dumkina is Ea’s lover and the mother of Bel and Marduk.
Dumuzi In Sumerian mythology, Dumuzi is the shepherd god.
Ea In Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Ea was the god of wisdom and magic. He relates to the Sumerian god Enki
Ellil see “Enlil”
Enki Enki was the Sumerian water god. Enki supplied clear drinking water to the town of Dilmun at the request of Ninhursag. Enki relates to the Babylonian god Ea.
Enkimdu In Sumerian mythology, Enkimdu was the farmer god.
Enlil In Sumerian mythology, Enlil (Ellil) was the son of Ki and An. He was the god of the sky and separated the earth from the heaven. He guards the tablets of destiny, which allow him to determines the fate of all things animate or inanimate.
Enmesharra In Sumerian mythology, Enmesharra is an Underworld god.
Ereshkigal In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal was a compassionless and violent goddess of gloom, death and the dead. She who is full of rage.
Erra In Sumerian mythology, Erra is a form of Erragal as a hunter god, a god of war and plague.
Erragal In Sumerian mythology, Erragal was god of the underworld, husband of Ereshkigal and a lover of Mami.
Gerra In Sumerian mythology, Gerra is the god of fire, son of Anunitu.
Gushkin-banda In Sumerian mythology, Gushkin-banda is the goldsmith god and the creator of god and man.
Hanish In Sumerian mythology, Hanish is servant to the weather god.
Humbaba In Sumerian mythology, the Humbaba is a monster appointed by Enlil to guard the cedar forest.
Inanna In Sumerian mythology, Inanna is the sister of Utu. She must choose as a husband between Enkimdu and Dumuzi. Both gods were keen to marry her, but she eventually married Dumuzi.
Irra In Sumerian mythology, Irra is a plague god.
Ishtar Ishtar was the Sumerian goddess of love and war, worshiped by the Babylonians and Assyrians, and personified as the legendary queen Semiramis.
Ishum In Sumerian mythology, Ishum is a god of fire, and is adept at using weapons. He lights the way in front of Erra and the Sebitti.
Kabta In Sumerian mythology, Kabta is the god of bricks, he is the god who lays foundations and builds houses.
Kalkal In Sumerian mythology, Kalkal is Enlil’s doorkeeper in Nippur.
Ki In Sumerian mythology, Ki was the personification of the earth.
Kishar In Sumerian mythology, Kishar is the mother of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu.
Lahar In Sumerian mythology, Lahar was the god of cattle. He was created by Enlil to provide cattle for the earth.
Lahmu In Sumerian mythology, Lahmu and Lahamu were the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. They have three pairs of curls, and are naked except for a triple sash.
Lamashtu In Sumerian mythology, Lamashtu is a dreaded female demon known as ‘she who erases’.
Mammetum In Sumerian mythology, Mammetum is the maker or mother of fate.
Marduk In Sumerian mythology, Marduk is the son of Ea and Dumkina. He is depicted as having four eyes.
Mummu In Sumerian mythology, Mummu is the craftsman god. He is attendant to Ea and Apsu’s vizier.
Nabu In Sumerian mythology, Nabu is the god of writing and wisdom.
Nammu In Sumerian mythology, Nammu was the goddess who gave birth to the heavens and the earth.
Namtar In Sumerian mythology, Namtar is the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal’s messenger and vizier, the herald of death. He commands sixty diseases, which are grouped by the part of the body which they affect. Offerings to him may stave off diseases.
Nana In Sumerian mythology, Nana was a virgin mother goddess of the Spirit of vegetation and fertility. A beloved consort of kings.
Nanna In Sumerian mythology, Nanna was the god of the Moon. Nanna relates to the Babylonian god Sin.
Nedu In Sumerian mythology, Nedu is the guardian of the first gate of the underworld.
Nin-agal In Sumerian mythology, Nin-agal is the god of smiths. He chews copper and makes tools.
Nin-ildu In Sumerian mythology, Nin-ildu is the carpenter god. He carries the pure axe of the sun.
Ningal In Sumerian mythology, Ningal was the wife of Nanna.
Ningizzia In Sumerian mythology, Ningizzia is a god of the Underworld and a guardian of the gate of heaven.
Ninhursag In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag was the earth mother. From her union with Enki came Ninsar, the goddess of plants.
Ninhursaga see “Aruru”
Ninkurra In Sumerian mythology, Ninkurra was a goddess. She was the daughter of Enki and his daughter Ninsar.
Ninmah see “Aruru”
Ninsar In Sumerian mythology, Ninsar was the goddess of plants. She was the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag.
Ninsun In Sumerian mythology, Ninsun is the great queen, Gilgamesh’s mother and Lugalbanda’s mate. She is wise, ‘knows everything’ and interprets Gilgamesh’s dreams.
Nintu see “Aruru”
Ninurta In Sumerian mythology, Ninurta is chamberlain of the Anunnaki. He is the child of Enlil and Mami. He is a messenger between Ninurta and other beings.
Nusku In Sumerian mythology, Nusku is the god of fire and Enlil’s vizier.
Qingu In Sumerian mythology, Qingu is Tiamat’s battle leader. He is eventually killed by Marduk.
Sebitti In Sumerian mythology, the Sebitti are the seven warrior gods led by Erra. In the sky they are the Pleadies. They are the children of Anu and the Earth-mother.
Shara In Sumerian mythology, Shara is a son of Anu and Ishtar.
Sharru In Sumerian mythology, Sharru is the god of submission.
Shullat In Sumerian mythology, Shullat is Shamash’s servant.
Siduri In Sumerian mythology, Siduri- the barmaid is a manifestation of Ishtar who dwells at the lip of the sea, beyond which is the Land of Life, where Utnapishtim lives.
Sumuqan In Sumerian mythology, Sumuqan is the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in Ereshkigal’s court.
Tammuz In Sumerian mythology, Tammuz was a god of agriculture. He died in midsummer, and was brought back from the underworld by his lover Ishtar. Tammuz was also worshipped as a sun-god by the Akkadians, Babylonians and Phoenicians. He was also known as Adoni, and was adopted by the Greeks as Adonis.
Tiamat In Babylonian mythology, Tiamat is the salt water Ocean. In the beginning there was only Apsu and Tiamat.
Uttu In Sumerian mythology, Uttu was the daughter of Enki and Ninkurra. Her mother warned her to avoid the advances of her father Enki. When Enki made advances on her she demanded cucumbers, apples and grapes as a gift. Enki supplied the fruits and as a result of their union eight plants spring forth. Enki ate the plants and was cursed by Uttu, subsequently becoming ill in eight different parts of his body.
Utu In Sumerian mythology, Utu was the sun god. He was the son of Nanna and Ningal. Utu relates to the Babylonian god Shamash.
Utukki In Sumerian mythology, the Utukki are the seven evil demons.
=== === C. The Anunnaki and other chthonic deities and demons Ereshkigal (Allatu) - the supreme goddess of the underworld. Nergal is her consort. She is often considered Ishtar’s sister. When angered, her face grows livid and her lips grow black. She doesn’t know why Ishtar would visit her, but she allows her in, according to the ancient rites. She instructs Namtar to release his file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (12 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled diseases upon Ishtar. When ‘His appearance is bright’ tries to get her to swear an oath, she curses him. She has Namtar release Ishtar in exchange for Dumuzi. Anu sends Kakka to her with a message and then sends Nergal to give her a throne upon which she is to sit and give judgment. She offers Nergal food, drink, a foot bath, and entices him with her body. Eventually he succumbs and they sleep with each other for seven days. She is enraged when he wishes to leave. She sends Namtar to heaven to request that Anu, Ellil, and Ea send Nergal to her as one of the few favors she has ever had. If they do not, she will raise the dead and they will eat and outnumber the living. Nergal is brought back. In some versions of the myth, Nergal takes control of Namtar’s attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In this position she proposes marriage to him. In both versions they are married. Belit-tseri, tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before Ereshkigal. Namtar(a) - the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal’s messenger and vizier, the herald of death. He commands sixty diseases, which are grouped by the part of the body which they affect. Offerings to him may stave off diseases. He takes Ishtar back out of the Underworld at Ereshkigal’s command. He acts as her messenger to Anu. Sumuqan - the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in Ereshkigal’s court. Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu - ‘lord who prowls by night’) -, the Unsparing, god of the underworld, husband of Ereshkigal, lover of Mami. As Erra he is a hunter god, a god of war and plague. He is submissive to Ea. He can open the doorposts to the underworld to allow the passage of a soul. He achieved his post by refusing to stand before an address of Namtar. When Ereshkigal called him to be punished, he dragged her off of her throne by the hair, and threatened to decapitate her. She offered him the position as her consort and he accepted. He is an evil aspect of Shamash. He allows Enkidu’s spirit to visit Gilgamesh at the behest of Ea. He is sometimes the son of Ea. Prior to his first journey to the underworld, he builds a chair of fine wood under Ea’s instruction to give to Ereshkigal as a gift from Anu. He is advised not to take part of the food, drink and entertainment offered there. He is tempted by Ereshkigal and eventually succumbs, sleeping with her for seven days. He then takes his leave, angering her. The gatekeeper lets him out and he climbs the stairway to heaven. He hides file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (13 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled >from Namtar in heaven, but is discovered and returns to the underworld to marry Ereshkigal. In some versions, on the way back to the Underworld, he seizes control of Namtar’s attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In this position she offers marriage. He commands the Sebitti, seven warriors who are also the Pleadies, they aid in his killing of noisy, over-populous people and animals. He rallies them when he feels the urge for war, and calls Ishum to light the way. They prefer to be used in war instead of waiting while Erra kills by disease. He regards Marduk as having become negligent and prepares to attack his people in Babylon. He challenges Marduk in Esagila in Shuanna/Babylon. Marduk responds that he already killed most of the people in the flood and would not do so again. He also states that he could not run the flood without getting off of his throne and letting control slip. Erra volunteers to take his seat and control things. Marduk takes his vacation and Erra sets about trying to destroy Babylon. Ishum intervenes on Babylon’s behalf and persuades Erra to stop, but not before he promises that the other gods will acknowledge themselves as Erra’s servants. Irra - plague god, underling of Nergal Enmesharra - Underworld god Lamashtu - a dread female demon also known as ‘she who erases’. Nabu - god of Despoilment Nedu - the guardian of the first gate of the underworld. Ningizzia - a guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis) the brother and spouse to Ishtar, or the lover of her youth. He is a vegetation god. He went into the underworld and was recovered through the intervention of Ishtar. He is sometimes the guardian of heaven’s gates and sometimes a god of the underworld. He is friends with Ningizzia. He is exchanged for Ishtar in the Underworld. He guards the Gate of Anu with Gizzida. Belili (Geshtinanna) - Tammuz/Dumuzi’s sister, ‘the one who always weeps’, the wife of Ningishzida. Gizzida (Gishzida) - son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu. file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (14 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled Nissaba (Nisaba) - cereal grain harvest goddess. Her breast nourishes the fields. Her womb gives birth to the vegetation and grain. She has abundant locks of hair. She is also a goddess of writing and learned knowledge. She performs the purification ceremony on Ninurta after he has slain Anzu and is given his additional names and shrines. Dagan (Ugaric for ‘grain) - chthonic god of fertility and of the Underworld. He is paired with Anu as one who acknowledges directives and courses of action put forth in front of the assembly of the gods. Birdu - (means ’pimple’) an underworld god. Ellil used him as a messenger to Ninurta Sharru - god of submission Urshambi - boatman to Utnapishtim Ennugi - canal- controller of the Anunnaki. Geshtu-e - ‘ear’, god whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami to create man. === === D. Demigods, heroes, and monsters: Adapa (Uan) - the first of the seven antediluvian sages who were sent by Ea to deliver the arts of civilization to mankind. He was from Eridu. He offered food an water to the gods in Eridu. He went out to catch fish for the temple of Ea and was caught in a storm. He broke the South Wind’s wing and was called to be punished. Ea advised him to say that he behaved that way on account of Dumuzi’s and Gizzida’s absence >from the country. Those gods, who tended Anu’s gate, spoke in his favor to Anu. He was offered the bread and water of eternal life, but Ea advised against his taking it, lest he end his life on earth. Atrahasis and Ut-napishtim, like the Sumerian Ziusudra (the Xisuthros of Berossus) or Noah from the Pentateuch, were the long-lived survivors of the great flood which wiped out the rest of humanity. In Atrahasis’ case, Ellil had grown tired of the noise that the mass of humanity was making, and after a series of disasters failed to eliminate the problem, he had Enki release the floodgates to drown them out. Since Enki had a hand in creating man, he wanted to preserve his creation, warned Atrahasis, and had him build a boat, with which he weathered the flood. He also had kept his ear open to Enki during the previous disasters and had been able to listen to Enki’s advice on how file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (15 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled to avoid their full effects by making the appropriate offerings to the appropriate deities. He lived hundreds of years prior to the flood, while Utnapishtim lives forever after the flood. Utnapishtim of Shuruppak was the son of Ubaratutu. His flood has no reason behind it save the stirrings of the hearts of the Gods. As with Atrahasis, Utnapishtim is warned to build an ark by Ea. He is also told to abandon riches and possessions and seek life and to tell the city elders that he is hated by Enlil and would go to the watery Abyss to live with Ea via the ark. He loads gold, silver, and the seed of all living creatures into the ark and all of his craftsmen’s children as well. After Ea advises Enlil on better means to control the human population, (predators, famine, and plague), Enlil makes Utnapishtim and his wife immortal, like the gods. Lugalbanda - a warrior-king and, with Ninsun, the progenitor of Gilgamesh. He is worshipped, being Gilgamesh’s ancestor, by Gilgamesh as a god. Gilgamesh (possibly Bilgamesh) and Enkidu The son of the warrior-king Lugalbanda and the wise goddess Ninsun, Gilgamesh built the walls of the city Uruk, and the Eanna (house of An) temple complex there, dedicated to Ishtar. He is two-thirds divine and one-third human. He is tall and a peerless warrior. He is the king and shepherd of the people of Uruk, but he was very wild, which upset his people, so they called out to Anu. Anu told Aruru to make a peer for Gilgamesh, so that they could fight and be kept occupied, so she created the wild-man Enkidu. Enkidu terrorizes the countryside, and a Stalker, advised by his father, informs Gilgamesh. They bring a lovepriestess to bait Enkidu. She sleeps with him, and educates him about civilization, Gilgamesh and the city. Gilgamesh dreams about Enkidu and is anxious to meet him. Enkidu comes into the city Gilgamesh is on his way to deflower the brides in the city’s “bride-house” and the two fight. They are evenly matched and become friends. Gilgamesh decides to strengthen his reputation by taking on Humbaba, Enlil’s guardian of the forest. Enkidu accompanies Gilgamesh and they spend much time in preparation. Eventually they find the monster and defeat him. Ishtar offers to become Gilgamesh’s lover, but Gilgamesh insults her, saying that she has had many lovers and has not been faithful to them. Ishtar asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to punish Gilgamesh, and he does. Gilgamesh and Enkidu defeat the creature, but Enkidu falls ill and dies, presumably because the gods are unhappy that he helped kill Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (16 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled Gilgamesh morns Enkidu and decides to visit Utnapishtim, the only human who does not die. He goes to the mountains of Mashu and passes by the guardian scorpion-demons into the darkness. It becomes light as he enters the Garden of the Gods and he finds Siduri the Barmaid, to whom he relates his quest. She sends him to cross the waters of death and he confronts the boatman, Urshanabi. They cross and Gilgamesh speaks with Utnapishtim. Utnapishtim recounts the tale of the flood and challenges Gilgamesh to remain awake for six days and seven nights. He fails, but Utnapishtim’s wife urges him to reveal to Gilgamesh a rejuvinative plant. Gilgamesh takes it, but looses it to a serpent before returning to Uruk. Another tablet of the Babylonian Gilgamesh story exists, which is similar to the Sumerian version of the tale. Enkidu volunteers to enter the underworld to recover Gilgamesh’s pukku and mikku (drum and throwing stick). Gilgamesh warns him of the proper etiquette for the underworld, lest Enkidu be kept there. Enkidu prepares to enter the underworld, and is dressed, scented and bade good-bye. The Earth seizes him and Gilgamesh weeps. He pleads for Enkidu’s sake to Enlil, Sin, and finally to Ea. Ea tells Nergal to let Enkidu’s ghost escape the underworld and tell Gilgamesh about it. He tells Gilgamesh of the dead which he has seen there, of those who are cared for and those who aren’t, indicating the sort of judgment and ritual associated with the afterlife and death. Etana - the human taken to the sky by an eagle. He was the king of Kish. Ishtar and the Igigi searched for a king for Kish. Ellil found a throne for Etana and they declared him the king. He was pious an continued to pray to Shamash, yet he had no son. Shamash told him to where to find the eagle with the cut wings, who would find for him the plant of birth. He found the eagle, fed it, and taught it to fly again. Not being able to find the plant, the eagle had Etana mount on his back and they journeyed to Ishtar, mistress of birth. On flying up to heaven, Etana grew scared at the height and went down. Then after some encouraging dreams tried to ascend to heaven on the eagle again. They succeeded. Etana had a son, Balih. Humbaba (Huwawa) - this monster was appointed by Ellil to guard the cedar forest, which is in fact one large tree, the home of the gods, and terrify mankind. ‘His shout is the storm-flood, his mouth, fire, his breath is death.’ (Gardner & Maier p. 105) He has seven cloaks with which to arm himself. There is a gate and a path in the cedar mountain for Humbaba to walk on. Gilgamesh and Enkidu attack. Humbaba pleads for mercy, Enkidu argues against mercy, and Enkidu and Gilgamesh decapitate him. file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (17 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled The Bull of Heaven - this creature was created by Anu to kill Gilgamesh at Ishtar’s behest. At its snorting, a hole opened up and 200 men fell into it. When it fights Enkidu and Gilgamesh, it throws spittle and excrement at them. It is killed and set as an offering to Shamash. Anzu - a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons and wings. It was born on the mountain Hehe. It’s beak is like a saw, its hide as eleven coats of mail. It was very powerful. Ellil appointed him to guard his bath chamber. He envied the Ellil-power inherent in Ellil’s Tablet of Destinies and stole it while Ellil was bathing. With the Tablet of Destinies, anything he puts into words becomes reality. He takes advandtage of this by causing Ninurta’s arrows to never reach their target. However, once Ea’s advice reached Ninurta, Anzu was slain by the hero’s onslaught. aqrabuamelu (girtablilu) - scorpion-man, the guardians of the gates of the underworld. Their “terror is awesome” and their “glance is death”. They guard the passage of Shamash. They appraise Gilgamesh and speak with him. Definitions: Anunnaki - gods (mostly of the earth). The sky Anunnaki set the Igigi to digging out the rivers Igigi - gods (mostly of the heavens) They are given the task of digging riverbeds by the Anunnaki. They rebelled against Ellil. Sebitti - the seven warrior gods led by Erra; in the sky they are the Pleadies. They were children of Anu and the Earth-mother. Anu gave them fearsome and lethal destinies and put them under Erra’s command. They prefer to exercise there skills instead of letting Erra stay in the cities with his diseases. Utukki - demons Muttabriqu - Flashes of Lightning Sarabda - Bailiff Rabishu - Croucher Tirid - Expulsion Idiptu - Wind Bennu - Fits Sidana - Staggers Miqit - Stroke Bel Uri - Lord of the Roof Umma - Feverhot Libu - Scab file:///G|/buecher/archive/Magic/Assyro-Babylonian%20Mythology.txt.html (18 of 20) [11.15.2002 11:46:22] Untitled gallu-demons - can frequently alter their form. umu-demons - fiercely bare their teeth.
As for the underworld Kurnugi (Sumerian for ‘land of no return’). It is presided over by Ereshkigal and Nergal. Within the house of Irkalla (Nergal), the house of darkness, the house of Ashes, no one ever exits. “They live on dust, their food is mud; their clothes are like birds’ clothes, a garment of wings, and they see no light, living in blackness.” It is full of dust and mighty kings serve others food. In Ereshkigal’s court, heroes and priests reside, as well as Sumuqan and Belit-tseri. The scorpion-people guard the gates in the mountain to the underworld which Shamash uses to enter and exit. There are seven gates, through which one must pass. At each gate, an adornment or article of clothing must be removed. The gates are named: Nedu, (En)kishar, Endashurimma, (E)nuralla, Endukuga/Nerubanda, Endushuba/Eundukuga, and Ennugigi. Beyond the gates are twelve double doors, wherein it is dark. Siduri waits there by the waters of death, beyond which, is the Land of the Living, where Utnapishtim and his wife dwell. Shamash and Utnapishtim’s boatman, Urshanbi, can cross the waters. Egalginga, the everlasting palace, is a place where Ishtar was held.